It is a condition in which the level of sugar is increases in blood (hyperglycemia) and later on in urine (glycosuria) also. It is a metabolic disorder due to lack of insulin. It is worldwide in distribution. It is predicated that by the year of 2025 India will be the capital of diabetes.
Types Of Diabetes:
Basically it is divided into two major categories type I diabetes and type II diabetes. Type-I is also known as insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), patient requires insulin for their management, otherwise, they run the risk of developing ketoacidosis. Type II diabetes is non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM), yet it does not mean that these patients do not require insulin. It is simply means that patients can easily be controlled without insulin except in a few complications. These two types do not show an absolute distinction in the matter of age and requirement of insulin.
Type I diabetes mellitus – it is considered as autoimmune disorder. Genetic factors are major determinant while the environmental factors are as trigger. Chromosome No 6 is affected and environmental factors such as a virus work as a trigger to produce the changes in the chromosome. These changes lead the autoimmune process of destruction, and inflammation of pancreas occur, that causes the damage of beta cells of pancreas. If more than 90% beta cells are destroyed then insulin is needed to manage the case of diabetes. That is why this type of diabetes is called as IDDM.
Type II diabetes mellitus- The cause of NIDDM is still elusive. It is neither chromosome linked, not there is any evidence of autoimmunity or virus playing role in its aetio-pathogenesis. Various factors that play important role are; Genetics as twins are more prone to type II diabetes, failure of beta cell of pancreas(which produce Insulin), some environmental factors like physical inactivity and obesity, and the age of above 40 years.